Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Was Ujamaa and How Did It Affect Tanzania

Ujamaa, the Swahili word for extended family, was a social and economic policy developed and implemented in Tanzania by president Julius Kambarage Nyerere (1922–1999) between 1964 and 1985. Based on the idea of collective farming and the villagization of the countryside, ujamaa also called for the nationalization of banks and industry and an increased level of self-reliance at both an individual and national level. Nyereres Plan Nyerere argued that urbanization, which had been brought about by European colonialism and was economically driven by wage labor, had disrupted the traditional pre-colonial rural African society. He believed that it was possible for his government to recreate precolonial traditions in Tanzania and, in turn, re-establish a traditional level of mutual respect and return the people to settled, moral ways of life. The main way to do that, he said, was to move people out of the urban cities like the capital Dar es Salaam and into newly created villages dotting the rural countryside. The idea for collective rural agriculture seemed like a sound idea—Nyereres government could afford to provide equipment, facilities, and material to a rural population if they were brought together in nucleated settlements, each of around 250 families. Establishing new groups of rural populations also made the distribution of fertilizer and seed easier, and it would be possible to provide a good level of education to the population as well. Villagization was seen as a way to overcome the problems of tribalization—a plague which beset other newly independent African countries that drove people to separate into tribes based on ancient identities. Nyerere set out his policy in the Arusha Declaration of Feb. 5, 1967. The process started slowly and was voluntary at first, but by the end of the 1960s, there were only 800 or so collective settlements. In the 1970s, Nyereres reign became more oppressive, as he began to force people to leave the cities and move to the collective villages. By the end of the 1970s, there were over 2,500 of these villages: but things werent going well in them. Weaknesses Ujamaa was intended to recreate nuclear families and engage the small communities in an economy of affection by tapping into the traditional African attitudes, while at the same time introducing essential services and modern technological innovations for the rural population that was now the majority. But traditional ideals of how families operated no longer matched the reality of the Tanzanians. The traditional devoted female domestic guardian of the family rooted in the village was contrary to the actual lifestyles of women—and maybe the ideal never had worked. Instead, women moved in and out of working and raising children throughout their lives, embracing diversification and flexibility to provide personal security. At the same time, although young men complied with the official orders and moved to the rural communities, they rejected the traditional models and distanced themselves from the older generation of male leaders within their family. According to a 2014 survey of people living in Dar es Salaam, villagization did not provide enough economic incentive to people who had been used to wage labor. They found themselves needing to involve themselves ever more deeply in the urban/wage economy. Ironically, Ujamaa villagers resisted engaging in communal life and withdrew from subsistence and commercial agriculture, while urban residents chose to live in the cities and practice urban agriculture. Failure of Ujamaa Nyereres socialist outlook required Tanzanias leaders to reject capitalism and all its trimmings, showing restraint over salaries and other perks. But as the policy was rejected by a significant fraction of the population, the main foundation of ujamaa, villagization, failed. Productivity was supposed to be increased through collectivization; instead, it fell to less than 50% of what had been achieved on independent farms. Toward the end of Nyereres rule, Tanzania had become one of Africas poorest countries, dependent on international aid. Ujamaa was brought to an end in 1985 when Nyerere stepped down from the presidency in favor of Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Pros of Ujamaa Created a high literacy rateHalved infant mortality through access to medical facilities and educationUnited Tanzanians across ethnic linesLeft Tanzania untouched by the tribal and political tensions that affected the rest of Africa Cons of Ujamaa Transportation networks declined drastically through neglectIndustry and banking were crippledLeft the country dependent on international aid Sources Fouà ©rà ©, Marie-Aude. Julius Nyerere, Ujamaa, and Political Morality in Contemporary Tanzania. African Studies Review 57.1 (2014): 1–24. Print.Lal, Priya. Militants, Mothers, and the National Family: Ujamaa, Gender, and Rural Development in Postcolonial Tanzania. The Journal of African History 51.1 (2010): 1–20. Print. 500 500 500Owens, Geoffrey Ross. From Collective Villages to Private Ownership: Ujamaa, . Journal of Anthropological Research 70.2 (2014): 207–31. Print.Tamaa, and the Postsocialist Transformation of Peri-Urban Dar Es Salaam, 1970–1990Sheikheldin, Gussai H. Ujamaa: Planning and Managing Development Schemes in Africa, Tanzania as a Case Study. Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies 8.1 (2014): 78–96. Print.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Stock Market Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks...

Stock Market Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks and Regression Analysis Tyler T. Procko Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University TO: Professor Michael Perez, M.A., M.F.A. FROM: Tyler T. Procko DATE: 10/03/2016 SUBJECT: Analytical Report Proposal I. Purpose / Background / Audience: Relatively accurate prediction of multi-tiered, non-linear events has long been a difficult and time-consuming task to perform; forecasting the movement of securities on the stock market included. Stock prices fluctuate for innumerable reasons, so correctly forecasting a stock’s movement can be extremely difficult. There are two areas that have massive effect on stock pricing: the psychology, or sentiment of investors and the mathematical, or analytical standpoint. In order to effectively predict stock price movement, these two areas, more than anything else, must be factored in. Fundamental and technical analysis are easily included, but accounting for investor sentiment is more complicated. Using artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the two schools of traditional analysis and regression analysis could prove useful in correctly forecasting the price movement of stocks on any exchange. How can ANNs be implemented with regressi on analysis to accurately predict the movement of stock prices? This report will be a semi-technical feasibility analysis of the different types of ANNs, predictive algorithms and financial analysisShow MoreRelatedStock Prices Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks7197 Words   |  29 PagesStock Prices prediction using Artificial Neural Networks Ajay Kamat Flat 2, Jaysagar 2, Navy Colony Liberty Garden, Malad west, Mumbai – 400064 +919833796261 ABSTRACT The aim of this research paper is to facilitate prediction of the closing price of a particular stock for a given day. A thorough analysis of the existing models for stock market behavior and different techniques to predict stock prices was carried out. 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Comparing and Contrasting Free Essays

Compare and contrast the way the poets present a rustic activity? The two poems ‘Photograph of Haymaker 1890’ by Molly Holden and ‘Hay-making’ by Gillian Clarke portray rustic activity in a similar way. The poem ‘Photograph of Haymaker 1890’ consists of two stanzas and this could be linked to the fact that it is a reminiscing photo of a man who cuts hay. This shows the rustic activity due to the fact it is the poet possibly describing a relative of hers working. We will write a custom essay sample on Comparing and Contrasting or any similar topic only for you Order Now Whereas, the poem ‘Hay-making’ has three very short stanzas. We can link the short, fast flowing stanzas with the fact that the title seems synonymous with love making. The poet Molly Holden cleverly uses the imagery of life and death throughout her poem ‘Photograph of Haymaker’. An example being ‘to whet his scythe’ this conveys the message of death and an image of a grim reaper. Holden cleverly juxtaposes this with the phrase ‘white shirt lit by another summer’s sun’. Gillian Clarke also uses an intriguing juxtaposition, ‘these hot nights’. This juxtaposition shows a sultry image of natural passion. You could also link this to rustic activity if you imagine a worker possibly working in the night time. The tones of the two poems seem completely different from each other. Holden’s poem, ‘Photograph of Haymaker’ has a nostalgic tone ‘he pausing from his work†¦ trousers tied below the knee’. The phrases used give the connotation of the poet bringing back good memories. This is what photographs tend to do. Clarke uses enjambment as she does not use punctuations to break up the flow of her poem and this adds to the dreary tone. Towards the end of the poem we see more evidence of rustic activity. The poet Molly Holden uses enjambment throughout the last stanza, ‘sweet hay and gone some seventy years ago and yet they stand before me in the sun’. This enjambment gives the image of hay possibly falling down. We can link this to rustic activity if we create an image in our head of hay falling down in a country farm. Gillian Clarke’s poem has an interesting caesura before the word ‘Breathe’, this can be seen as a command possibly suggesting how the ritual of harvesting is metaphorically inspirational. Another important phrase which is strongly linked to rustic activity is, ‘in the scratch of the hay’. The ‘scratch’ of the hay creates a physical link between rural nature of a farm for instance and the act of human love making. We can also say that this is onomatopoeia. How to cite Comparing and Contrasting, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Heavens Gate Suicides Essays - Heavens Gate, Religion

The Heaven's Gate Suicides The Heavens Gate Suicides RED ALERT! Hale-Bopp brings closure to: Heavens Gate. This is the greeting one receives upon visiting the Heavens Gate web page. It is a haunting message that was left behind when 21 women and 18 men took their own lives on March 23, 24, and 25, 1997. This mass suicide was under the supervision of Marshall Herff Applewhite, the cults charismatic leader. Heavens Gate was not Applewhites first cult. It was the latest of three organizations that he and his partner, Bonnie Lu Trusdale Nettles had founded. The first of which was Human Individual Metamorphosis which was founded in 1975. This group disbanded with the death of Nettles from cancer in 1985. He formed a new group called Total Overcomers Anonymous in 1993. He relocated this group to the infamous San Diego mansion where he lived on to become one of the 39 suicides in March of 1997. The Heavens Gate cult was founded under unusual beliefs. Applewhite preached that Jesus was an extraterrestrial and that the core of oneself was an alien in place of the traditional belief of the soul. All the cult members believed themselves to be aliens as well. The members were prohibited from sexual activity and were denied sexual identity by means of unisex clothing and unisex treatment. Eight men of the cult, including Applewhite, went so far as to undergo voluntary castrations. It is theorized that Applewhite instituted this complete prohibition of sexuality because of his avoidance of his own sexuality. Applewhite was a homosexual and even tried to rid himself of his burden by committing himself in the 70s when it was thought by some that homosexuality could be cured. It is also hypothesized that the lack of sexuality was due to the belief that aliens have no sexual organs seeing as they modeled themselves as extraterrestrial monks and nuns. These delusions are what lead them to their untimely deaths. The chain of events that resulted in the deaths of 39 mislead men and women was set in effect by what could have been mechanical error. An amateur astronomer reported photographing a huge Saturn-like object trailing the tail of the comet Hale-Bopp. Applewhite received news of this young mans discovery. He came to the conclusion that this object was a UFO that was meant to take the cult members to the next level. The suicides occurred when this comets course was closest to the earth. The members were found in bunk beds wearing black Nikes and black unisex costumes. They had plastic bags and purple shrouds over their heads. In their blood, medical examiners found a virtual cocktail of drugs. All of the members had ingested Phenobarbital that was, mixed with applesauce or pudding and most of them chased this with vodka. Some of the members also took Vicodin and numerous others suffocated under plastic bags. In late March of 1997, 39 men and women put themselves to death under the convoluted leadership of Marshall Herff Applewhite. Who is to blame for this tragic chain of events? Was it the amateur with the telescope? Was the Internet to blame? In my personal opinion, no one but Applewhite and his followers were culpable. Who knows, maybe the cult did hitch a ride with that UFO. Maybe they did make their way to the next level, but as far as I know they have been reduced to a mere bit of trivia here on earth. Social Issues

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Article review of A Question of Balance essays

Article review of A Question of Balance essays This review is of the article A question of balance from the April 2004 volume of National Geographic. In the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar (what used to be called Burma), a large wildlife sanctuary was created in an uninhabited section of the valley. Now the wildlife sanctuary is being considered for expansion to become the worlds largest tiger reserve. In an earlier time, this plan may not have faced so many challenges. In the years following World War Two, the bridges leading into the valley were destroyed by nature as well as the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) who sought to keep out the central government. Now, decades later, the bridges into the Hukawng Valley are being rebuilt. Because of this, tens of thousands of people are moving into the area. They come in search of gold and wildlife for profit. The gold in the Hukawng valley has remained largely untouched for years. Because of this, people are going to great lengths just to find small amounts of it. A small amount of gold can easily equal a months pay or more. It is the methods used to extract the gold from the soil that worries environmentalists. The miners start by using high pressure water to blast a hole into the ground. The hole becomes larger and the soil is turned into sludge. Cyanide and mercury are then used to help pull the gold from the sludge. For all of the work that is involved, little gold is retrieved and the environment pays the price. The nearby streams and the ground water is damaged by the poisonous chemicals, any animals drinking water from these sources will most likely be killed. Another problem presented by the gold mining is the large increase of people in the area. There are now thousands of people living in areas were only a hundred lived before. The increase in people means a major drain on the local resources. One of those resources is the wildlife in the area. The tigers in the area must ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

List of Types of Disaccharides

List of Types of Disaccharides Disaccharides are sugars or carbohydrates made by linking two monosaccharides. This occurs via a dehydration reaction and a molecule of water  is removed for each linkage. A glycosidic bond can form between any hydroxyl group on the monosaccharide, so even if the two subunits are the same sugar, there are many different combinations of bonds and stereochemistry, producing disaccharides with unique properties. Depending on the component sugars, disaccharides may be sweet, sticky, water-soluble, or crystalline. Both natural and artificial disaccharides are known. Here is a list of some disaccharides, including the monosaccharides they are made from and foods containing them. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are the most familiar disaccharides, but there are others. Sucrose (saccharose) glucose fructoseSucrose is table sugar. It is purified from sugar cane or sugar beets. Maltose glucose glucoseMaltose is a sugar found in some cereals and candies. It is a product of starch digestions and may be purified from barley and other grains. Lactose galactose glucoseLactose is a disaccharide found in milk. It has the formula  C12H22O11 and is an isomer of sucrose. Lactulose galactose fructoseLactulose is a synthetic (man-made) sugar that is not absorbed by the body  but is broken down in the colon into products that absorb water into the colon, thus softening stools. Its primary use is to treat constipation. It is also used to reduce blood ammonia levels in persons with liver disease  since lactulose absorbs ammonia into the colon (removing it from the body). Trehalose glucose glucoseTrehalose is also known as tremalose or mycose. It is a natural alpha-linked disaccharide with extremely high water retention properties. In nature, it helps plants and animals reduce long periods without water. Cellobiose glucose glucoseCellobiose is a hydrolysis product of cellulose or cellulose-rich materials, such as paper or cotton. It is formed by linking two beta-glucose molecules by a ÃŽ ²(1→4) bond. Table of Common Disaccharides Heres a quick summary of the subunits of common disaccharides and how they are linked to each other. Dissacharide First Unit Second Unit Bond sucrose glucose fructose ÃŽ ±(1→2)ÃŽ ² lactulose galactose fructose ÃŽ ²(1→4) lactose galactose glucose ÃŽ ²(1→4) maltose glucose glucose ÃŽ ±(1→4) trehalose glucose glucose ÃŽ ±(1→1)ÃŽ ± cellobiose glucose glucose ÃŽ ²(1→4) chitobiose glucosamine glucosamine ÃŽ ²(1→4) There are many other disaccharides, although they are not as common, including isomaltose (2 glucose monomers), turanose (a glucose and a fructose monomer), melibiose (a galactose and a glucose monomer), xylobiose (two xylopyranose monomers), sophorose (2 glucose monomers), and mannobiose (2 mannose monomers). Bonds and Properties Note multiple disaccharides are possible when monosaccharides bond to each other, since a glycosidic bond can form between any hydroxyl group on the component sugars. For example, two glucose molecules can join to form maltose, trehalose, or cellobiose. Even though these disaccharides are made from the same component sugars, they are distinct molecules with different chemical and physical properties from each other. Uses of Disaccharides Disaccharides are used as energy carriers and to efficiently transport monosaccharides. Specific examples of uses include: In the human body and in other animals, sucrose is digested and broken into its component simple sugars for quick energy. Excess sucrose can be converted from a carbohydrate into a lipid for storage as fat. Sucrose has a sweet flavor.Lactose (milk sugar) is found in human breast milk, where it serves as a chemical energy source for infants. Lactose, like sucrose, has a sweet flavor. As humans age, lactose becomes less-tolerated. This is because lactose digestion requires the enyzme lactase. People who are lactose intolerant can take a lactase supplement to reduce bloating, cramping, nausea, and diarrhea.Plants use disaccharides to transport fructose, glucose, and galactose from one cell to another.Maltose, unlike some other disaccharides, does not serve a specific purpose in the human body. The sugar alcohol form of maltose is maltitol, which is used in sugar-free foods. Of course, maltose is a sugar, but it is incompletely digested and absorbed by the body (50 to 60 percent). Key Points A disaccharide is a sugar (a type of carbohydrate) made by linking together two monosaccharides.A dehydration reaction forms a disaccharide. One molecule of water is removed for each linkage formed between the monosaccharide subunits.Both natural and artificial disaccharides are known.Examples of common disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, and lactose. References IUPAC, Disaccharides. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the Gold Book) (1997).Whitney, Ellie; Sharon Rady Rolfes (2011). Peggy Williams, ed.  Understanding Nutrition  (Twelfth ed.). California: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p.  100.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Short Run and Long Run Strategies in Business Essay

Short Run and Long Run Strategies in Business - Essay Example The short run is a period usually in which factors of capital other than labor are all fixed and cannot be changed, the short run for the shipping industry may be 3 years and the short run for a smaller business like handicrafts may be 6 months but generally the short run is considered to be one year. The ultimate goal for any company other than not for profit is to earn a considerable profit for its stakeholders but at times market conditions are such that this objective has to be kept behind and other strategies have to be pursued in order to meet the long-term objective of making a profit for all the people who are concerned with the business. Some of these environmental situations are explained below. At times in the face of strong competition that might threaten the business in the long run and the short run as well businesses tend to forget the objective of making a profit until they drive the competition out of the market, there are several strategies that a business could use for this. One of the most popular strategy that businesses use to drive out competition from the market is dumping, since the company which is just entering the market have higher production costs because of lower efficiency due to a variety of reasons such as not knowing the best suppliers and not having a reputation and a rapport would mean that costs for the company automatically are higher than a company which is already existent in the market. Hence established firms take advantage of this and start selling their products at well below their marginal costs, the new entrant into the market can ill afford that and is forced to move out of the market. When a firm deploys this strategy to drive competit ion out of the market, is it earning a profit on the products that it is selling? No, it is not, in fact, it is selling at a price lower than what it cost to produce one extra unit.